The concurrent.futures module in python 3.2
A brief introduction on concurrent module in python 3.2 (from python docs)
Code for creating and managing concurrency is being collected in a new top-level namespace, concurrent. Its first member is a futures package which provides a uniform high-level interface for managing threads and processes.
The design for concurrent.futures was inspired by the java.util.concurrent package. In that model, a running call and its result are represented by a Future object that abstracts features common to threads, processes, and remote procedure calls. That object supports status checks (running or done), timeouts, cancellations, adding callbacks, and access to results or exceptions.
The primary offering of the new module is a pair of executor classes for launching and managing calls. The goal of the executors is to make it easier to use existing tools for making parallel calls. They save the effort needed to setup a pool of resources, launch the calls, create a results queue, add time-out handling, and limit the total number of threads, processes, or remote procedure calls.
Ideally, each application should share a single executor across multiple components so that process and thread limits can be centrally managed. This solves the design challenge that arises when each component has its own competing strategy for resource management.
Both classes share a common interface with three methods: submit() for scheduling a callable and returning a Future object; map() for scheduling many asynchronous calls at a time, and shutdown() for freeing resources. The class is a context manager and can be used in a with statement to assure that resources are automatically released when currently pending futures are done executing.
A simple of example of ThreadPoolExecutor is a launch of four parallel threads for copying files:
import concurrent.futures, shutil with concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=4) as e: e.submit(shutil.copy, 'src1.txt', 'dest1.txt') e.submit(shutil.copy, 'src2.txt', 'dest2.txt') e.submit(shutil.copy, 'src3.txt', 'dest3.txt') e.submit(shutil.copy, 'src3.txt', 'dest4.txt')
- PEP 3148 – Futures – Execute Computations Asynchronously
- PEP written by Brian Quinlan.
Code for Threaded Parallel URL reads, an example using threads to fetch multiple web pages in parallel.